The following regulations are the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) that apply to survival equipment. In case you do not want to read all of them they basically say that you need a first aid kit and equipment to start a fire, provide shelter, provide or purify water and visually signal distress.
Survival Equipment - Flights over Land
602.61 (1) Subject to subsection (2), no person shall operate an aircraft over land unless there is carried on board survival equipment, sufficient for the survival on the ground of each person on board, given the geographical area, the season of the year and anticipated seasonal climatic variations, that provides the means for
(a) starting a fire;
(b) providing shelter;
(c) providing or purifying water; and
(d) visually signalling distress.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of
(a) a balloon, a glider, a hang glider, a gyroplane or an ultra-light aeroplane;
(b) an aircraft that is operated within 25 nautical miles of the aerodrome of departure and that has the capability of radiocommunication with a surface-based radio station for the duration of the flight;
(c) a multi-engined aircraft that is operated south of 66o 30' north latitude
(i) in IFR flight within controlled airspace, or
(ii) along designated air routes;
(d) an aircraft that is operated by an air operator, where the aircraft is equipped with equipment specified in the air operator's company operations manual, but not with the equipment required by subsection (1); or
(e) an aircraft that is operated in a geographical area where and at a time of year when the survival of the persons on board is not jeopardized.
Requirements for Power-driven Aircraft
602.60 (1) No person shall conduct a take-off in a power-driven aircraft, other than an ultra-light aeroplane, unless the following operational and emergency equipment is carried on board:
(a) a checklist or placards that enable the aircraft to be operated in accordance with the limitations specified in the aircraft flight manual, aircraft operating manual, pilot operating handbook or any equivalent document provided by the manufacturer;
(b) where the aircraft is operated in VFR OTT, night VFR flight or IFR flight, all of the necessary current aeronautical charts and publications covering the route of the proposed flight and any probable diversionary route;
(c) a hand-held fire extinguisher in the cockpit that is
(i) of a type suitable for extinguishing the fires that are likely to occur,
(ii) designed to minimize the hazard of toxic gas concentrations, and
(iii) readily available in flight to each flight crew member;
(d) a timepiece that is readily available to each flight crew member;
(e) where the aircraft is operated at night, a flashlight that is readily available to each crew member; and
(f) a first aid kit.